Technology, sustainability, infrastructure: How useful E-cars are really?

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Technology, sustainability, infrastructure: How useful E-cars are really?-technology

In the future we drive pure electrical – so at least the plan of politics. But the hype raises many questions about electromobility. What about range, charging infrastructure and sustainability? How negative does the brew of great high vorticulture affect the ecosystem? And is the electric car really better than a modern combustion? Questions about questions that Professor Peter Pfeffer has asked about the University of Munich in the interview with the star. We have picked up the topic.

The meaning and nonsense of electric cars is very discussed. For some they are ecologically necessary, for the others they bring problems with them. First, the question arises, how environmentally friendly the electromobility is really. Electric cars are not rarely referred to by manufacturers as “emission-free” because they do not generate direct emissions in contrast to the internal combustion engine. However, one must not forget that CO₂ emissions as well as pollutants are emitted in electricity production and consequently must be included in the overall balance sheet. In order to be able to compare all drive concepts fairly with each other, the ADAC has taken into account the energy consumption of fuel source to the wheel, even well-to-wheel (WTW) gennant, considered. In the lifecycle analysis, the CO₂ emissions occur, which are incurred in the production of the respective vehicle, nor are added.

Here, according to ADAC, that the electric car is a CO₂-backpack blister that is much bigger than that of cars with an internal combustion engine. The resource-intensive battery cells have to blame. The ADAC has calculated that the CO₂ disadvantage of battery cars only from the performance of 50.000 to 100.000 kilometers is balanced. Only then do E-cars be more environmentally friendly than modern burners. But why is the electromobility then forced from the automotive industry? Professor and Vehicle Technology Expert Peter Pepper from Munich University of Munich has declared the Magazine Star that this is due to EU legislation. Namely, emission targets of currently 90 grams per kilometer CO2 are required. 2030 this value should fall to 60 grams. “These goals can only be achieved if you have electric vehicles in the fleet. In any case, purely with burners, this is not possible with the vehicle concepts that customers like to buy – especially rather large vehicles. That’s why the automotive industry is forced to increase the proportion of electric vehicles in the fleet, otherwise you can not fulfill the laws “.

Reach depends on different factors

So far so good. But another criticism for many who think about a new car is the reach. And that depends on different factors: “From the use of electrical consumers, the outside temperature and above all by individual driving behavior,” the ADAC knows. Through: The electric cars tested by the automotive club according to the current measuring method can be achieved on average 15 to 20 percent higher power consumption and, as a result, lower reach than the manufacturers according to WLTP cycle. In addition, in very cold or warm months with losses in the range should be expected – around ten to 30 percent. Nevertheless, more and more electric cars create ranges from 300 to 400 kilometers and rapid loading capacities of up to 150 kW (and more) with longer distances can be made more and better purely electrically covered.

When asked how hard it was to abolish the internal combustion engine, white pepper a clear answer: “Theoretically the possibility is already there – at least with the cars. There is also practical, even if it is partially impractical for the end customer. For the trucks, it is technically possible, but does not make any sense ecologically. A modern truck has 40 tons total weight, of which are 15 tons of empty weight of the vehicle and 25 tons payload. If you would electrify the electrification, then you would need a huge battery. Then the truck would only have 20 tons of payload and 20 tons of own weight. That would be a loss of charge of over 25 percent and at the same time one would also drive a lot, much heavier vehicle – even if it is empty – driving through the area “.

If you look at the gross residue prices of electric cars, they are quite expensive – the environmental bonus would not be. Because E-cars are again priced. Also in the overall consideration of all operating costs (with taxes, insurance, maintenance, energy costs, wear) and due to the promotion electric cars often cheaper than cars with conventional combustion engine. The fact is that E-cars can compete quite according to ADAC. But this is dependent on the personal usage scenario, especially at higher annual passes and with a favorable charging current. And here lies the Krux: Not only that the loading infrastructure is left to be desired for many, the prices are opaque and not infrequently overpriced.

Who can load at home on a wallbox and about at work, which is the cheapest and best best. Electricity prices of 79 cents per kWh at public fast load columns are not uncommon, while at home it is usually the household power tariff (CA. 34 kWh cents per kWh) can be loaded. Marcus Fendt of “The Mobility House” knows in the interview with the star, why that is: “That’s because it is a free market. So, at the beginning of the year, ionity has increased the price of a kilowatt hour at a CCS fast loading column to 79 cents. But this does not apply to the drivers of car brands involved in ionity: BMW, Ford, Daimler AG, the Volkswagen Group including Porsche as well as Hyundai and Kia. That pay a significantly lower tariff, which is below 30 cents. The competitor EnBW demands the kilowatt hour of normal charging stations 39 cents and to fast charging stations 49 cents – and without a basic fee.”

Technology, sustainability, infrastructure: How useful E-cars are really?-technologyTank & Rast

Twice so many charging points needed

According to ADAC, there is now a shop network developed in the city, on land and highways.000 normal and 5.700 quick loading points – trend rising. “Looking at the distribution of the charging points, it falls on that in eastern Germany, the density of the charging pillars decreases. According to estimates of the Federal Association of Energy and Water Management (BDEW) are 70 for one million e-cars.000 Normal load points and 7.000 fast load points necessary, “explains Professor Pepper. One of the biggest disadvantages of electric cars remain long loading times, which is why the electromobility is not yet practicable for many. Even a highly technologized Porsche Toycan, which can load up to 270 kW, is best for a charge to 80 percent more than half an hour. In addition, the charging power decreases from 80 percent (SOC) to protect the battery Rapide. For many interested parties, this is already too much, which is why there is a rethinking.

“Currently there are still different plugs in charging stations in use. Basically, one distinguishes between columns which load with AC (AC) and those in which DC (DC) flows into the car. If you load equal to DC (DC), the on-board loader of the E-car is superfluous because the battery and the charging column are located on the same wavelength and thus electricity can be pumped into the batteries quickly “, white pepper. Did you know that the loading density for cities with 100.000 to 500.000 inhabitants statistically best is best? So Wolfsburg with 493 charging points ensures the top position, following Regensburg with 282 charging points and Karlsruhe with 260 charging points. If you take a look in the east, the loading network is clearly thinning. Here is a need for catching up.

The question arises where the whole electricity should come from. Sometime the networks together? The ADAC explains: “Based on the current situation of the electricity market in Germany, no major problems are expected in the medium term. 10 million electric cars would mean approximately an additional electricity requirements of 5.6 percent, or 30 TWh. (…) 2020 but a currency surplus of 18 TWh was exported. This could have been purely computational six million electric cars. In addition, steady efficiency increases and energy savings in lighting, buildings and industrial equipment should compensate for a part of the additional requirement for electromobility “. But with the nuclear and coal outward exit, the expansion of wind and photovoltaic systems and additional storage solutions will be necessary in the future. Because with increasing number of electric vehicles also increases the risk of network overload. For this reason, for charging stations at home to 11 kW of performance, over 12 kW even an approval obligation was introduced.

Technology, sustainability, infrastructure: How useful E-cars are really?-infrastructurePorsche

The battery as an uncertainty factor

Manufacturers also advertise with long warranties and guarantees for batteries. Eight years and / or 160.000 kilometers should keep you sure. Nevertheless, in the course of a battery life, the performance and its storage capacity is sinking. This depends on normal physical aging and also the number of charges. The drive battery is the most exposed component of an electric car. If a defect occurs after the warranty expires, most manufacturers promise to exchange individual cell modules. The battery would not have to be completely replaced in the case – which could be extremely expensive and would come equal to most electro cars for economic talent damage. “Only below 70 percent would an exchange of the battery be economically useful. Most motorists in Germany drive less than 15.000 kilometers per year. Theoretically, this group would have to worry about a new battery after 14 years, “explains Professor Pepper. Nevertheless, vehicle manufacturers should offer repair solutions in the future because non-usable batteries need to be disposed of and these are considered special waste.

According to ADAC, recycling methods for lithium-ion drive batteries are already possible and available today. Recycling can be recycled from the drive batteries up to 95 percent of the relevant functional materials cobalt, nickel and copper can be recovered. Also, the recovery of lithium is possible, but due to favorable raw material prices is currently still uneconomical. Incidentally, expanded drive batteries can be used for many years as stationary power storage (Second Life). But there are actually enough raw materials for all the batteries that are now needed? According to Eco Institute E.V. exceed the worldwide occurrences of lithium, cobalt, nickel, graphite and platinum clearly. But bottlenecks could give it if the conveyor not to be developed in time. The ADAC also knows: “However, the promotion of raw materials for the construction of electric cars is associated with environmental and social problems – such as the promotion of many raw materials for other uses also.”These include a high energy requirement, limited water reserves or questionable working conditions in mines. Also, one should know that the oil oil is consumed for internal combustion engines, but the raw materials of a battery can be recycled and reused at the end of the lives. An important point that speaks for electric cars.

Finally, it can be clearly saying: The current electromobility is still in the children’s shoes in many things. But that was always with new technology that had to develop and establish itself. And yet there are already some advantages. Who drives a lot – especially short – routes – and often has the opportunity to pay off at best with green stream, which comes to enjoying an ecologically meaningful drive. For all other applications such as heavy duty or frequent long distance, it is still recommended to conventional combustions. But that could change in the future. You also have to keep in mind that with batteries, charging infrastructure, Laddauer et cetera will still happen a lot. Even now, politics has created incentives together with the automotive industry, recovery. Keyword: environmental bonus. Incidentally, on the 13th. December 2021 also officially that the innovation premium is extended in previous form until the end of 2022. So there is still up to 9.000 Euro for E cars and up to 6.750 euros for PHEVS.

Source: star.DE, ADAC.DE, OKO Institut e.V., Bdew

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12 thoughts on “Technology, sustainability, infrastructure: How useful E-cars are really?”

  1. A star article that has a “traffic expert” with almost all prejudices against e-cars mind. the last 10 years can be expressed extensively; The EA-N author often cites obsolete / refuted allegations and spoils only with sentences such as:

    “Here’s the need for catching up.”

    I’m sorry, what?

    Finally, it can be clearly saying: The current electromobility is still in the children’s shoes in many things.

    Sorry, but at least for such an article I see that &# 128578;

    Reply
  2. How sustainable are burners?
    Absolutely imbalance articles formulated by an eternal gasoline snoop … or even sponsored by the Peterollobby?

    Reply
  3. These justifications are no longer necessary. The electric cable drives full ride and is unstoppable. That we are still in the beginning in vehicles and infrastructure, is not to be denied. How strangely yesterday and hardly suitable for a z.B. an I3 today? But that does not talk about buying electric cars. They are desirable and will greatly improve over 3-4-5-6 generation. In 25 years I have a 300 kW battery in the car invited in 5 minutes on the road and at home I have an inductive solution from the store of the Solardach. And the car goes alone on request. so what? After all, today I have what is currently technically feasible.

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  4. If it was not about the protection of the environment and especially the CO2 stress, there is currently little pressure to take away from the burner.
    With the BEV we now have something expensive but useful solution for some comprehensive CO2-free individual mobility. That’s why the states are in this direction with a lot of money. The electric motor is a very good solution (so the railroad, trolleybuses, elevators and much others have long been electrical) and an improvement compared to the burner engine. Batteries as energy storage have been a few years more useful and increasingly affordable solution for a few years. From a parent point of view are a few hundred kilograms of chemical energy storage, which contains less energy per weight than firewood, certainly not the wish solution and simply no elegant solution.
    So: electric motor is close to the dream solution, battery is a suitable emergency solution.
    I hope and assume that we will be smiled by this solution in 2-3 decades. A better green energy store is urgently wanted. Ideally small, a few kilograms heavy and easily replaceable.

    Reply
  5. I first looked at the creation date of the article. 5 years ago, this would have been ok as a possible opinion, but today, no. Delete would be most sensible.

    Reply
  6. Nice the CONS emphasizes and the pros mentions at best ..
    For me as normalo, the car is in particular a cost factor. For 9 months I drive an eup. Purchase price as well as the combustion version, tax free, liability and fully comprehensive 133EU!!! Maintenance costs? Maybe the wiper rubbers ..
    You have to load at home otherwise you pay more for fuel than the burner. The difference is enormous. I drive 70km per working day and the cost now in winter with heating are located at CA 5eu / 100km.
    If the sun is shining, this is reduced by PV system and almost zero in summer. Cheap car driving is not. At the station wagon PV + E car you can make the KWh smooth with 60CT if you assume that the fuel costs are twice as high during the burner. CO2 free electricity If you notice as incidentally, but as I said, costs, costs, costs ..

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  7. E-car:
    Per:
    Theoretically CO2 free drive If battery production and later electricity from regenerative source come
    Quietly
    Fun
    Energy recovery by recuperation
    Low consumption in “idle”
    Lower air load
    Less / lower service requirement for fewer components.(no oil change …)
    Tax benefits

    Contra:
    – Actually only for homeowners with wallbox useful. Lanternenparker must shop expensive current
    – High weight of the vehicles
    – opaque charging infrastructure about the detriment of customers. About charging after time and not kWh
    Here is a state regulation required
    – Love
    – Control benefits can be abolished at any time
    – Network is not adapted for high charging streams
    – Surprisingly high wear for brake systems (rust) and tires (such as the high torque)
    – In some cases significant energy losses in winter and thus range losses
    – Problems and significant costs after accidents especially when the battery is damaged
    has.
    – Significant “wear” in fast loads. For lithium cells, the lifetime is reduced when loaded with C values> 1 is significant

    Reply
  8. And once again the mar of the green stream, which makes the Bev more ecological. It is the same, which electricity you load, since the power mix is not changed thereby. And since it is expected in all planned games with the mix, so the electricity I buy as an ecostrom, which belongs to me, is used again to load BEV, that’s a complete nonsense.
    There are probably some intellectually stuck in the early years of the regenerative.
    However, I invite my BEV to your own PV, which is now out of the promotion after 20 years. But that has pure economic reasons. In my neighborhood, more coal, gas and nuclear power is sourced. Ecologically seen only new plants bring an advantage as they improve the power mix.

    Reply
  9. No news.In the current technical state of the batteries (U.a. Energy density and price) are E-cars such as vehicles of the Golf (VW) and FORCUS (Ford) class for the average household compared to the burners unfortunately not yet competitive.

    Reply
  10. Ojeh, the professor pepper has little plan, which concerns truck. Of course, these will drive electrically. That is absolutely no problem. Googling a little would help the Lord.

    Reply

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